The Minimum Everyone Working With Data Must Know About File Types, Encoding, Delimiters and Data types

Do you ever work with data?
Do you ever work with datasets that have multiple rows and columns?
Did you ever encounter one of the following issues?

If you recognize any of these issues, you are deforming your data in ways that might impact anything you use it for at a later stage. There are a few technicalities on how data is stored that you should be aware of in order to work around these issues. If you work with data, you need to know this. Not being a computer scientist is not an excuse.